1. Прочитайте и переведите письменно текст.
WHAT DOES ECONOMICS STUDY?
What do you think of when you hear the word economics? Money,
certainly, and perhaps more complicated things like business, inflation
and unemployment. The science of economics studies all of these, but
many more things as well. Perhaps you think that economics is all about
the decisions that governments and business managers take. In fact,
economists study the decisions that we all take every day.
Very simply, economics studies the way people deal with a fact of
life: resources are limited, but our demand for them certainly is not.
Resources may be material things such as food, housing and heating.
There are some resources, though, that we cannot touch. Time, space
and convenience, for example, are also resources. Think of a day. There
are only 24 hours in one, and we have to choose the best way to spend
them. Our everyday lives are full of decisions like these.
Every decision we make is a trade-off. If you spend more time
working, you make more money. However, you will have less time to
relax. Economists study the trade-offs people make. They study the
reasons for their decisions. They look at the effects those decisions have
on our lives and our society.
What are microeconomics and macroeconomics?
Economists talk about microeconomics and macroeconomics.
Microeconomics deals with people, like you and me, and private
businesses. It looks at the economic decisions people make every day. It
examines how families manage their household budgets.
Microeconomics also deals with companies — small or large — and how
they run their business.
Macroeconomics, on the other hand, looks at the economy of a
country — and of the whole world. Any economist will tell you, though,
that microeconomics and macroeconomics are closely related. All of our
daily microeconomic decisions have an effect on the wider world around
Another way to look at the science of economics is to ask, ‘what’s it
good for?’ Economists don’t all agree on the answer to this question.
Some practise positive economics. They study economic data and try to
explain the behavior of the economy. They also try to guess economic
changes before they happen. Others practise normative economics. They
suggest how to improve the economy. Positive economists say, ‘this is
how it is’. Normative economists say, ‘we should ‘.
So what do economists do? Mainly, they do three things: collect
data, create economic models and formulate theories. Data collection
can include facts and figures about almost anything, from birth rates to
coffee production. Economic models show relationships between these
different data. For example, the relationship between the money people
earn and unemployment. From this information, economists try to make
theories which explain why the economy works the way it does.
2. Ответьте письменно на вопросы по тексту.
a) What does economics study?
b) What does microeconomics deal with?
c) What does macroeconomics look at?
d) What’s the difference between positive and normative
e) What are the three things that economists do?
3. Подберите к терминам соответствующие определения:
1. budget A. the people who control a country and make
2. business B. information
3. convenience C. company that sells goods or services
4. data D. easiness
5. demand E. the amount of money you have for something
6. government F. how much people want something
7. inflation G. the number of people without work
8. resources H. something such as money, workers or
minerals belonging to an organization, country,
which can be used to function properly
9. trade-off I. rising prices
10. unemployment J. giving away something in exchange for
4. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на
a) It is important to carry out theses changes as quickly as possible.
b) To encourage our employees to develop their skills is one of the
prime concerns of management.
c) The employers agreed to accept the terms pf the pay deal.
d) Another fact to be born in mind is that some of these ratios only
apply to domestic output.
e) The advanced countries provide technical experts to advise and
assist the developing countries in their efforts to achieve growth.
Задание 5. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая
внимание на формы и функции герундия.
a) The control of the money supply is one of the most important
instruments for regulating total demand in an economy.
b) We discussed opening a new business.
c) Increasing wage rates attracts more workers and encourages
them to work longer hours.
d) Many people get satisfaction from doing a good job and creating
something useful or beautiful.
e) Imposing taxes on harmful products discourages people from
6. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на
формы и функции причастия.
a) The information obtained is very valuable.
b) In advanced capitalist societies advertising is a powerful
instrument affecting demand in many markets.
c) A business process is the set of activities performed to serve a
d) Banknotes and coins are not the most important form of money
in developed countries.
e) Having returned from a business trip, he suggested using new
approaches to the project.
7. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на
типы условных предложений.
a) If the government cuts taxation, it will gain a lot of popular
b) If we installed new equipment, we would become more
c) Were I in the city, I would attend this lecture.
d) Unless we reach break-even point within six months, we will
have to ask for another bank loan.
e) If the consultant had done more careful research, he would have
identified a gap in the market.
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