1. Прочитайте и переведите письменно текст.
If you work, you’ve probably got a bank account. You could keep
the money you earn each month in a box under your bed, but it wouldn’t
be very sensible. One reason is that it’s not very safe. If your house gets
burgled, you’ll lose everything you’ve saved. Another reason is that your
money will lose value.
As prices rise, the money in a box under your bed will be able to
buy fewer and fewer things. Money in a bank savings account, however,
will earn interest. The interest will help compensate for the effect of
inflation. But banks are more than just safe places for your money. What
other services do they offer?
The other main service is lending money. Individuals and
businesses often need to borrow money, and they need a lender that they
can trust. This is exactly what banks are — reliable lenders. In fact, most
of the money that people deposit in their bank accounts is immediately
lent out to someone else.
Apart from storing and lending money, banks offer other financial
services. Most of these are ways of making money more accessible to
customers. For example, banks help people transfer money securely.
They give customers cheque books and credit cards to use instead of
cash. They provide ATM machines so that people can get cash any time
of the day or night.
But how do banks make a living? Basically, they make a living by
charging interest on loans. Of course, when you make a deposit into a
bank savings account, the bank pays you interest on that money.
However, the rate they pay savers is less than the rate they charge
borrowers. The extra money they make by charging interest on loans is
where banks earn most of their money. For banks, interest is also a kind
of security. Sometimes people do not pay back money they borrow. This
is called defaulting on a loan. When someone defaults on a loan, the
bank uses money earned from interest to cover the loss.
All of this means that most of the money people have saved in the
bank is not there at all! A small amount of the total savings is kept by
the bank so that customers can make withdrawals. The rest, however, is
made available for loans. The amount that is kept is called the reserve.
The reserve must be a certain percentage of all the savings received
from customers — for example 20 per cent. This figure is set by the
central bank, and this is one of the ways that governments can control
the amount of money circulating in the economy.
2. Ответьте письменно на вопросы по тексту.
a) What are the two reasons for saving your money in a bank?
b) Why do people borrow money from banks?
c) What other financial services do banks provide?
d) How do banks make a living?
e) What is a reserve? How big can it be?
3. Заполните пропуски в предложениях одним из слов,
withdrawal ATM interest credit savings central
deposit reserve default inflation
a) When you make a …, you put money into your account.
b) When you make a …, you take money out of your account.
c) An … is a machine that gives customers money when the bank
d) The percentage of the principal that is paid as a fee for
borrowing money is ….
e) A … is the bank currency deposit which is not lent out to the
f) A … card is used for borrowing money to buy things.
g) If you cannot pay back money you borrow you … on a loan.
h) A … account is used for keeping money longer term.
i) Money in a box under your bed loses value because of ….
j) The … bank decides how much money commercial banks
should keep in reserve.
4. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на
a) The purpose of each business process is to offer each customer
the right product or service.
b) To obtain a stock exchange listing, a company must have at
least 25 per cent of its shares held by public.
c) Efforts to increase the productive capacity of the poorer nations
will only be effective if these nations are able to increase their
d) We expect interest rates to rise next week.
e) We have decided not to advertise this position, but to recruit
5. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на
формы и функции герундия.
a) The increase in government spending and borrowing will have
some effect on the rate of interest.
b) We have succeeded in entering a new competitive market.
c) Protecting infant industries is vital to their survival in a highly
d) He knew nothing of his being sent to London.
e) New management suggested changing quality control system.
6. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на
формы и функции причастия.
a) A country wishing to limit its population may discourage
immigration and encourage emigration.
b) Industries producing steel, paper and chemicals require very
large quantities of water and tend to be found near rivers.
c) Taxes placed on goods and services are known as indirect taxes
as opposed to direct taxes placed on income and wealth.
d) Loan capital is more appropriate in firms operating in stable
e) Having researched all the vacancies available, he chose the one
to match his qualifications and experience.
7. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на
типы условных предложений.
a) If incomes are rising, the demand for most goods and services
will tend to increase.
b) If the price of butter fell, the demand for margarine would
c) If production can be expanded very easily and quickly in
response to an increase in demand, supply will be elastic.
d) If we don’t install new equipment, we will become
e) If I had known that I wouldn’t have said anything.