1. Прочитайте и переведите письменно текст.
THE MARKET ECONOMY
Have you ever walked through a busy street market? People push
their way through crowds of others in order to reach the stalls first. The
air is full of deafening shouts. Stall owners yell to advertise their goods.
Buyers cry out their orders. It’s hard to imagine, but behind this noisy
confusion is a very logical economic theory: the market economy.
The market economy is sometimes called the free market. A free
market is not controlled in any way by a government. It is also free from
the influence of custom or tradition. In a free market, the only reason
why things are bought and sold is because there is a demand for them.
Prices for goods and services are simply what people are prepared to
pay. The market economy is not really controlled by anyone. It controls
The street market where we began has many of the characteristics
of the free market. Customers arrive at the market with a shopping list of
things they need. They also come with an idea of how much they are
prepared to pay. Stall owners sell what customers demand, and try to get
the highest price they can for it. Supply and demand control what is on
the market and how much it sells for. In the wider economy, we are all
customers, and the stall owners are like companies.
The role of the company in the free market is to supply what
people want. However, companies need an incentive. The incentive is
profit. There are two ways for companies to make a profit. The first way
is to raise their prices. The second way is to reduce their production
costs. And this brings us to two more features of the market economy:
competition and technology.
Competition exists in a free market because, theoretically, anyone
can be a producer. This means that companies have to compete with
each other for a share of the market. Competition is good for consumers
because it helps to control prices and quality. If customers aren’t happy
with a product or service, or if they can’t afford it, they will go to a
Technology exists in a free market because producers need ways to
reduce their costs. They cannot buy cheaper raw materials. Instead, they
must make better use of time and labour. Technology is the use of tools
and machines to do jobs in a better way. This helps companies produce
more goods in less time and with less effort. The result: more profit.
People often think that most economies are free markets. However,
at the macroeconomic level, a truly free market economy does not exist
anywhere in the world. This is because all governments set limits in
order to control the economy. Some governments set many limits, other
governments set very few, but they all set some. For this reason, a true
market economy is only theoretical. Nevertheless, many of the features
of the market economy do exist in most societies today.
2. Ответьте письменно на вопросы по тексту.
a) Who controls a market economy?
b) Who decides what to produce and sell in a market economy?
c) Why is competition a good thing?
d) Why does technology exist in a market economy?
e) Are there true market economies in the world today? Why?
3. Заполните пропуски в предложениях одним из слов,
предложенных ниже. Перепишите полные предложения и
переведите их на русский язык.
market reduce competition demand advertise
features costs raise afford profit
a) Production … are the amount of money companies spend to
make a product.
b) A … economy is one where a government decides what can be
bought and sold and/or how it is done.
c) When there is a demand we… prices but we … them if we want
to sell something quickly.
d) If there is only one producer in the market, there is no …
e) Supply and … control what is on the market and how much it
f) I can’t … that car – it’s far too expensive.
g) Businesses … their products in the media to attract more
h) The main incentive for businesses in a market economy is
making a ….
i) Technology is one of the main … of the market economy.
Задание 4. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая
внимание на функции инфинитива.
a) One of the fundamental decisions to be taken by entrepreneurs
concerns the geographical location of their enterprises.
b) In order to increase profits, the company developed a new
product and launched it successfully in the market.
c) To enter this market requires a lot of hard work.
d) The sales director claimed to have found three new customers.
e) There are nation-wide schemes to encourage industrial
Задание 5. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая
внимание на формы и функции герундия.
a) His taking part in the development of the new system was a
great help to us.
b) Opening up economies bring a problem of keeping a good
balance of trade.
c) By cutting the number of employees a company has a quickacting method of reducing costs.
d) The company risks losing money if it makes investment in this
e) Retail price index is calculated by recording increases in prices
for a range of goods and services.
Задание 6. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая
внимание на формы и функции причастия.
a) Monetary policy is one of the tools used by the government to
control the economy.
b) Purchases made using credit cards are now a huge proportion of
total spending in many countries.
c) Structural unemployment occurs when changing public tastes
and advances in technology cause a fall in demand for some
types of work.
d) In a country suffering from inflation people have lower
e) Having laid off 50 employees, the company reduced costs and
managed to survive.
7. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на
типы условных предложений.
a) If money incomes rise by 5 per cent, but over the same period
prices rise by 10 per cent, real income will have fallen.
b) If the supplier of such a commodity were to raise the price,
many buyers would turn to the close substitutes.
c) We would have to reduce our workforce if the bank refused to
extend our credit.
d) If the market for our products expands, we will have a 20 per
cent increase in turnover next year.
e) If we had installed the equipment, we would have become more
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